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“广州” 建城、得名之始
日期:2009-08-11

                        “广州” 建城、得名之始
 
 广州,一座充满岭南文化神韵的东方城市,在走过了二千多年烟雨浮华的今天,依然执着对人类文明的向往;在生生不息的历史变革中,这座历史名城依然延续着折射中华古老文化的耀眼光芒。
 早在远古时代,广州的先民们就在这块土地上生息繁衍,揭开了广州人文史的初页。今日在越秀山上保存的"古之楚庭"牌坊,是历史的见证。据清代屈大均《广东新语》记载,周惠王时,广州一带的越人臣服于楚国,并建"楚亭"以示朝拜之意。到了清代,人们以为"楚亭"就是广州历史上最早的名字,故在这里建立牌坊以示纪念。
 在秦始皇的金戈铁马横扫六国完成中国统一大业后,公元前214年,秦朝平定了岭南,并在岭南设置了南海、桂林、象3个郡。其中南海郡所辖的已知有番禺、四会、龙川、博罗4个县。当时郡的行政中心设在番禺(今广州),并且任命任嚣做郡尉。走马上任后的任嚣,在珠江边修筑了番禺城,又叫"任嚣城",这是最早的广州城。从此奠定了广州在岭南的中心城市地位。
 到了秦末汉初,赵佗在岭南建南越国,定都番禺。1995年在中山四路忠佑大街南越国宫署遗址内的一块石板上发现有一秦隶"蕃"字,蕃即是番禺的简称。三国时期,吴王孙权在赤壁之战胜利后重点向南发展,拥有了当时包括番禺在内的江南大片领土,号称"东吴"。公元226年,孙权实行交、广分治,分合浦郡以北为广州,交趾郡以南的地方为交州。任命吕岱为广州刺史,所以此后就有了广州这个名称。这是历史上广州得名的开始。
岁月悠悠,流转在不断变迁的沧海桑田之中,流转在人类不断向前发展的脚步下。今天,当我们的生活在不断变化演进的时候,赋予我们生存权力的这个城市的许多记忆并不会消失。今天的广州,依然是兼备着新锐与传统、古老与前卫的大都市,依然是新世纪里拥有无穷想像力和创造力的国际化城市。


 The Origins of Guangzhou and Its Name

Guangzhou, an oriental city nourished by the local Lingnan culture, has a history of more than 2,000 years. The city is a bright gem on the crown of Chinese civilization and an embodiment of mankind’s vigorous pursuit of civilization.

Guangzhou has been inhabited since ancient times. The “Ancient Pavilion of Chu” memorial archway, standing on Yuexiu Hill, bears witness to the city’s enduring history. According to “New Notes on Guangzhou”, compiled by Qu Dajun during the Ming Dynasty, during the reign of King Hui of the Zhou Dynasty, the Yue people around Guangzhou, who were subject to the rule of the State of Chu, erected “the Pavilion of Chu” as a gesture of respect for their new ruler. During the Qing Dynasty, the local people, convinced that “Chuting” (Pavilion of Chu) was the earliest name of Guanghzou, built the memorial archway.

In 214BC, following the conquest of six other states and unification of China by Emperor Qin Shi Huang, the Qin Dynasty took over the Lingnan region and set up three prefectures: Nanhai, Guilin and Xiang. Nanhai Prefecture, consisting of Panyu, Sihui, Longchuan and Boluo counties, had its administrative center in Panyu (the present-day Guangzhou) and the Emperor of Qin appointed Ren Xiao governor of the prefecture. The newly appointed governor ordered the construction of the town of Panyu by the Pearl River, also known as “the Town of Ren Xiao”, and the origin of the present-day Guangzhou and he also laid the foundation for Guangzhou to eventually emerge as the central city of the Lingnan region.
In the early Qin and late Han dynasties, Zhao Tuo established the Kingdom of Nanyue in Lingnan and built the capital of the kingdom in Panyu. In 1995, a stone sable bearing the inscription “Pan”, the abbreviation of “Panyu”, was discovered at the former site of the Kingdom of Nanyue Palace at Zhongyou Street on Zhongshan IV Road. During the Three Kingdoms period, the King of Wu, Sun Quan, expanded his kingdom southwards after his victory at the Battle of Chibi, taking over vast territories south of the Yangtze River, including Panyu, and renaming his kingdom “Eastern Wu”. In 226AD, Sun Quan divided his kingdom into two major parts – Guangzhou, covering the areas north of Hepu Prefecture, and Jiaozhou, covering the areas south of Jiaozhi Prefecture. Lu Dai was appointed governor of Guangzhou. This event defines the origin of the name of Guangzhou.

The fabric of Guangzhou’s history is resplendent with its many strands of local history and culture. A dynamic city of colorful and rich cultural heritage, Guangzhou combines lively modernity with respect for the region’s traditions. Guangzhou is also an international metropolis noted for its passion to be daring and innovative and its can-do ability to bring visionary ideas to life.

  
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